Academia / 已故犹太史学家Elliott Horowitz ( 1953~2017 ) 生前的论文，作者是专注研究犹太屠杀的犹太史学家
01. p18, 19, 指出 虽然犹太习俗的历史，甚至思想，也可能与萨维德或威尼斯等城市的咖啡和咖啡馆有关，尽管这种饮料在相应文献中得到了大量的讨论，但咖啡的主题受到了明显的忽视。
The attribution of a historical role to a beverage such as coffee is less startling than might appear at first glance and certainly less original. More than a quarter of a century ago ( in an article that was later to be incorporated in the collective volume Food and Drink in History ) Jean Leclant observed that ” both the history of ideas and the history of customs ” could profit from an inquiry into the place of coffee and coffeehouses in seventeenth-century Paris. In doing so he followed a tradition in French scholoarship stretching back, as he indicated, to Michael and to Diderot’s Encyclopedie. Although the history of Jewish customs, and perhaps even idea, may also be linked to the place of coffee and coffeehouses in such cities as Safed or Venice, and although the beverage was much discussed in the responsa literature, the subject of coffee has suffered from conspicuous neglect in modern Jewish scholarship.
02. p19, 而咖啡地位在伊斯兰中得到了稳固，因为给夜间奉爱活动创造了必要的清醒状态。
In Islamic scholarship, by contrast, the subject has fared considerably better. in the original Encyclopedia of Islam, and some fifty years later the editors of the second edition saw fit to publish a revised and substantially expanded version.This, indeed, is quite appropriate, since it was evidently in fifteenth-century Yemenite Sufi circles that the drinking of coffee originated, the beverage having been found useful for producing the necessary wakefulness for their nightly devotional exercises. By the middle of the sixteenth century coffee had spread to such urban centers as Mecca, Cairo, Istanbul and Damascus, where its use was no longer confined to religious purposes, and where special establishments were devoted to its preparation and consumption. Before the century’s end , as the late Fernand Braudel observed, coffee “had installed itself virtually throughout the Muslim world”.
03. p20, 作者的意图旨在说明 犹太人 & 非犹太人 如何在coffeehouses这样的公共场所 共处一室。 （coffee 与社会生活的题材，许多人类学家、历史学家写过，大多讲到了coffeehouses在早期的政治功能，例如新闻小道消息的传播场所，人民议论时政的茶余饭后场所。而该论文的作者从两个民族的对立面入手，借由coffeehouses叙述了社会生活里普遍涌现矛盾对立的方方面面）